Journey into the Heart of Mongolia’s Nomadic Culture

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Welcome, fellow wanderers to a grand adventure that will transport you far beyond the realms of ordinary travel. Today, we embark on an extraordinary journey – a pilgrimage into the enchanting heartland of Mongolia, where ancient traditions blend seamlessly with breathtaking landscapes to create a tapestry woven in time. Join us as we dive headfirst into this captivating realm of nomadic customs and traditions. Prepare to be immersed in a world untouched by modernity, where horseback warriors gallop across boundless steppes and yurts stand proudly amidst rolling hills like silent guardians of wisdom. So buckle up your boots and open your mind wide – for together, we shall traverse through the untamed wilderness of Mongolia’s soul-stirring heritage

A young nomadic herder taking his flock out just before sunrise.
A young nomadic herder taking his flock out just before sunrise.

Introduction to Mongolian nomadic culture and history

Mongolian nomads have a long and rich history dating back to the 13th century. They are a proud and hardy people who have managed to maintain their traditional way of life in the face of modernization. The Mongolian steppe is one of the last great wildernesses on earth, and its nomadic inhabitants are some of its most fascinating residents.

The Mongolian nomadic way of life revolves around their animals, specifically their horses, cows, sheep, and goats. These animals provide them with food, transportation, and shelter. In addition to herding these animals, Mongolian nomads also engage in hunting and gathering. For centuries they have been able to sustain themselves in this harsh environment through their intimate knowledge of the land and its resources.

Today, there are an estimated 30 million people of Mongolian descent living around the world. While the majority of Mongols now live in cities or towns, there are still many who maintain a nomadic lifestyle. For those who have never experienced it, a journey into the heart of Mongolia is sure to be a memorable and eye-opening experience.

The start of a game of Camel Polo
The start of a game of Camel Polo

How nomads live in Mongolia today

Mongolia is a land of nomads, and even today, many Mongolians still live a nomadic lifestyle. They move their herds of animals usually sheep, goats, cows, and horses to new grazing grounds every few weeks or months, following the seasons. This way of life requires great skills in animal husbandry and a intimate knowledge of the land.

A typical Mongolian family will live in a yurt (a portable round tent) which can be easily dismantled and moved. The yurt is made from wooden frames covered with felt or woolen cloth. It has a central fireplace for heating and cooking, and an opening at the top for ventilation.

The family’s animals are kept close to the yurt in a corral made from poles and branches. In the evening, the animals are brought into the corral so they can be protected from predators such as wolves or foxes.

During the day, the children help their parents tend to the animals while the adults do other chores such as making cheese or butter, mending clothes, or weaving carpets. In Mongolia’s harsh climate, everyone must work together to survive.

Nomadic life is not easy, but it is very rewarding. Mongolians are proud of their nomadic heritage and traditions. They are also very hospitable people, and guests are always welcome in a Mongolian home, no matter how humble it may be.

Food and cuisine of Mongolian nomads

The traditional food of Mongolian nomads is very simple and basic. It consists mostly of meat and dairy products, as well as some vegetables. The meat is usually mutton or lamb, as these are the most common animals in Mongolia. The dairy products include milk, cheese, and yogurt. The most common vegetables are potatoes, carrots, and onions.

Mongolian nomads have a very strong tradition of hospitality, and they will always offer food and drink to guests. If you are invited into a Mongolian yurt (home), you will likely be offered a salted milk tea, aaruul (dried curd) and other snacks. It is considered impolite to refuse these offerings. Be sure to always accept something offered with both hands, if you use just one hand it is also considered impolite. 

One of the most unique aspects of Mongolian cuisine is the use of fermented mare’s milk, known as airag. This slightly alcoholic beverage is an acquired taste, but it is an important part of Mongolian culture. Airag is often given to guests as a sign of welcome and hospitality.

Airag in the fermenting process.
Airag in the fermenting process.

Unique traditions and customs of Mongolian nomads

Mongolia is a land of contrasts. From the bustling capital city of Ulaanbaatar to the vast and empty steppe, the country is home to a wide range of people and cultures. One of the most fascinating aspects of Mongolian culture are the traditions and customs of the nomadic people who make up a large part of the population.

Nomadic life has been a way of life in Mongolia for centuries, and it’s a way of life that is still very much alive today. Although many nomads have now settled in permanent homes in towns and cities, there are still those who live a traditional nomadic lifestyle, moving from place to place with their animals in search of new pastures.

The nomadic lifestyle is often seen as romantic and adventurous, but it’s also hard work. Nomads have to be self-sufficient, able to care for their animals and themselves in often harsh conditions. They must also be experts in navigating the often unpredictable Mongolian weather.

Despite the challenges, there are many aspects of nomadic life that are deeply appealing. The close connection to nature, the simple way of life, and the strong sense of community are just some of the reasons why so many people choose to live this way.

If you’re interested in learning more about Mongolian nomadic culture, there are plenty of opportunities to do so. You can visit a traditional ger (yurt) camp, go on a camel or horse trek , or even stay with a local family for a few days. Whichever way you choose to experience it, it’s sure to be an unforgettable experience.

Here are some of the traditional customs and practices of Mongolian nomads:

1. Gers: Nomadic people live in gers, also known as yurts. These round tents are made of felt stretched over a wooden frame and held together with rope. They’re designed to be easy to set up and take down as people move from place to place.

2. Herding: Most nomads are livestock herders, raising animals such as sheep, goats, horses, camels, and yaks for food and trade. They use these animals for transportation, milk production, and wool production.

3. Customs: Mongolian nomads are highly superstitious and have many different beliefs about luck, health, and protection from evil spirits. Common customs include burning incense in front of the ger every morning and evening; not washing their hands before eating; never pointing at the sun or moon; not standing on the threshold of a ger; never whistling inside the ger; and never speaking ill of someone who has passed away.

4.Music and Dance: Music and dance form an integral part of nomadic celebrations. Traditional throat singing, known as khoomii, is a mesmerizing vocal technique where singers produce multiple harmonics simultaneously. Traditional dances like the “Bielgee” and the “Tsam Dance” are vibrant and energetic, often performed during festivals and gatherings.

5.Sharing Snuff Bottles: Among the nomadic communities, it is common to share snuff bottles, small containers filled with powdered tobacco. Offering a snuff bottle to someone is a gesture of friendship and respect, and accepting it symbolizes acceptance and camaraderie.


Nomadic clothing and housing

Mongolia is a land of vast steppes and nomadic herders. For centuries, Mongolians have lived a nomadic lifestyle, moving from place to place in search of pasture for their animals. This way of life has shaped Mongolian culture in many ways, including the traditional clothing and housing worn and used by the nomads.

Traditional Mongolian clothing is made from felt and wool. It includes items such as the deel, a long tunic worn by both men and women, and the zodog, a fur-lined coat worn in winter. Nomadic people also wear lots of layers of clothing to protect themselves from the cold weather.

As for housing, Mongolian nomads live in portable homes called gers or yurts. These round structures are made from wooden frames covered with felt or skins. They can be dismantled and packed up easily, which is perfect for a nomadic lifestyle. Inside a ger, there is usually a stove for heating and cooking, as well as beds and storage areas.

Gers are traditionally decorated with colorful fabrics and rugs. Many families also hang items such as dreamcatchers and horsehair tassels from the ceiling for good luck.

Role of Genghis Khan in Mongolian culture

Genghis Khan is one of the most important figures in Mongolian culture. He was the founder of the Mongol Empire, which at its peak, extended from China to Europe. He is also revered as a great warrior and leader. His image is ubiquitous in Mongolia, and he is often referred to as the “Great Khan”.

Mongolia celebrates his birthday (which is actually unknown) as a national holiday. Every year, a festival is held in his honor in the capital city of Ulaanbaatar. The festival features traditional music and dance, as well as lectures on his life and legacy.

In addition to being celebrated in festivals, Genghis Khan is also honored in many other ways in Mongolian culture. There are statues of him throughout the country, and his face appears on the Mongolian currency. A popular brand of vodka is even named after him!

The impressive Chinggis Khaan Statue just outside of the capital Ulaanbaatar.
The impressive Chinggis Khaan Statue just outside of the capital Ulaanbaatar.

Impact of modernity on Mongolian nomadism

The nomadic way of life in Mongolia has been increasingly under threat in recent years as the country modernises and globalises. While some young Mongolians are choosing to embrace the opportunities and challenges of the 21st century, others are cling to the traditional values and customs of their ancestors.

The majority of the Mongolian population still lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture and livestock husbandry for their livelihoods. However, this way of life is becoming increasingly difficult to sustain as pastureland dwindles and temperatures rise due to climate change. In addition, many young people are leaving the countryside to seek education and employment in the city, further weakening the link between Mongolians and the land.

The impact of modernity on Mongolian nomadism is evident in both positive and negative ways. On the one hand, economic development is improving living standards for many Mongolians and providing new opportunities for entrepreneurship. On the other hand, environmental degradation is putting pressure on traditional livelihoods, while rapid urbanisation is causing social upheaval. Ultimately, it remains to be seen how resilient Mongolian nomads will be in the face of these challenges.

Eagle hunters on horseback


Taking a journey into the heart of Mongolia is truly an experience like no other. Not only do you get to witness and appreciate its stunning landscapes, but also explore the deep-rooted nomadic traditions and customs. From meeting local herders and tasting unique local cuisines to learning about ancient rituals and beliefs, there’s something for everyone in this fascinating land. So whether you’re looking for an adventure or some much needed rest and relaxation, Mongolia has it all!

I would like invite you to explore my captivating photo project that showcases the fascinating lives of Mongolian nomads in the enchanting landscapes of the Gobi Desert.

Do you want help creating your very own trip to experience the nomadic lifestyle and the wonders that Mongolia holds? Contact me here for expert advice and trip planning.

Some pictures sourced from pixabay, freepik and pexels.

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